Pathogens

Pathogens are small disease-causing microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and some parasites. A single liter of ocean water can carry up to 1 billion bacteria and 10 billion viruses.

While the majority of pathogens pose little to no health risk, some can be harmful to humans, marine species and ecosystems. Harmful pathogens usually enter the ocean because of poor sanitation practices, runoff of animal waste, and vessel discharge.

Countries that are poverty-stricken, war-torn or politically unstable are generally more susceptible to pathogenic diseases like typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera because of poor infrastructure, lower standards of sanitation or hygiene, and inadequate maintenance of water supplies (Sedas 2007).

Sources Of Pathogens
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Which Goals Does This Affect?


How Was It Measured?

Pathogens were measured on a country-wide basis according to the population’s access to improved sanitation facilities that effectively prevent contact with excreta. The raw data were derived from the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme, 2011. Percentages per country were based on a maximum target that would indicate that 100% of the population had access to improved sanitation facilities.

What Are The Impacts?

3.5 Million Cases of Cholera Occur Annually
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ECOLOGICAL IMPACT
Marine animals can become sick or die when exposed to pathogens. Coral reefs are also particularly susceptible to bacterial infections, which can inhibit their ability to provide a wide range of ecosystem services. Additionally, overuse of antibiotics in humans and livestock has led to the development of strains of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. 

A 2008 study found that 78% of marine animals off the coast of New England had contracted at least one antibiotic-resistant bacterium, and over 50% had contracted two or more antibiotic-resistant bacteria (WHO 2008).
HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT
Humans can become ill from bathing in or ingesting contaminated water, or consuming contaminated seafood. The most widespread and harmful pathogenic illness is cholera, caused by Vibrio cholera, which causes severe diarrhea and dehydration and can be fatal if left untreated. V. fulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are two other species in the cholera family that are commonly found in mangroves, estuaries and marshes. Exposure to these pathogens through raw/undercooked seafood or infection through wounds can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and potentially fatal infections in humans.
ECONOMIC IMPACT
Pathogens threaten jobs and income in the seafood, tourism and recreation industries. Fear of contamination lowers consumer confidence and closed beaches reduce attendance. The health costs of pathogenic infections are also great. In Los Angeles and Orange County, California, fecal contamination at beaches causes between 627,800 and 1,479,200 additional gastrointestinal illnesses each year, generating a public health cost of US $21 to $51 million (Given 2006).


What Has Been Done?


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United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA):  Oceans & Human Health Initiative
Research project identifying and investigating which terrestrial pathogens are affecting ocean health.

World Health Organization (WHO)
WHO report on water sanitation addressing exposure and risk of disease.

Woods Hole Center for Oceans & Human Health (WHCOHH)
The WHCOHH addresses the distribution of pathogens in regard to oceanic processes.

Getting a Grip on Cruise Ship Pollution
A review of cruise ship pollutant issues prepared by Ross A. Klein, PhD, for Friends of the Earth. December 1, 2009. 

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References




PHOTO(S): © Keith A. Ellenbogen
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