Sector Diversity and Evenness 

Sector diversity and evenness is used as one of three Social Resilience components for the Livelihoods subgoal of the Livelihoods & Economies goal, the others being the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) and the Global Competitive Index (GCI). 

A diverse group of industries is likely to produce a more robust economy.  Marine economies may potentially include many types of industries and occupations, however global data were only available for nine marine employment sectors.  The Coastal Livelihoods and Economies goal evaluates jobs, wages and revenues for those nine sectors, which are pictured below.  

The evenness of distribution of employment across these nine sectors is an effective indicator of resilience.  If total employment within a community is primarily based in one or two sectors, the overall economic system will be excessively vulnerable to downturns in those sectors.  Conversely, if employment is spread relatively evenly throughout all nine sectors, the overall system will be more robust and resistant to such disturbances. Overall revenue within the community will remain more stable during such downturns, and workers displaced by a downturn in their sector may be able to find employment in another sector without leaving the community.

Where information is available, regional assessments could incorporate other marine sectors into their analyses using the same technique.  

Marine-Related Employment Encompasses Many Sectors
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Which Goals Does This Affect?


How Was It Measured?

Sector diversity and evenness was measured using Shannon's Diversity Index, a common measure of ecological and economic diversity. For Ocean Health Index purposes, the calculation is based on the total number of jobs and sectors and the probability that any given job belongs to a sector. The value varies from 0 to 1, where 1 represents completely even distribution of jobs among the different marine sectors and lower values indicate progressively more uneven distributions. 

Sector diversity and evenness is used as one of three Social Resilience components for the Livelihoods subgoal of the Livelihoods & Economies goal, the others being the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) and the Global Competitive Index (GCI). Because Ecological Resilience is not relevant for scoring the Livelihoods subgoal, its resilience is therefore calculated as (Sector Evenness + WGI + GCI) ÷ 3. Terms are omitted when data for a country are not available. 

Further information is available on this site's Web pages for WGI and GCI; and in the supplementary information to Halpern et al. (2012)


References




PHOTO(S): © Keith A. Ellenbogen
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