Biodiversity

SUPPORTING healthy marine ECOSYSTEMS


This goal estimates how successfully the richness and variety of marine life is being maintained around the world.

People value the existence and intrinsic value of a diverse array of species as well as their contributions to resilient ecosystem structure and function.  


Global Goal Score

83

Likely Future State

+
1
%

Ocean Region Rankings


*The estimate of a goal’s likely near-term future status is a function
of four dimensions: Status, Trend, Pressure, and Resilience.


Sub-Goals

This goal contains two sub-goals.  Species evaluates the conservation status of marine species; Habitats evaluates the condition of key habitats that support high numbers of species.  The two sub-goals are weighted equally when calculating the overall goal score.


Select a sub goal
to learn more
  • Species

    Global Goal Score

    82

    Likely Future State

    +
    1
    %

    *The estimate of a goal’s likely near-term future status is a function of four dimensions: Status, Trend, Pressure, and Resilience.


    What Does This Score Mean?

    The reference point for this sub-goal is for all species within a country to be categorized at very low levels of extinction risk, or “least concern” on the IUCN’s (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) Red List, and for none to be listed as vulnerable, threatened or endangered.

    It is important to recognize that this score represents a small sample of existing marine biodiversity, since IUCN data currently only exists for about 10% of known marine species and at least three times as many species are estimated to exist but have not yet been described.

    The score is highest when all native species in a given country are free from risk (invasive species are excluded), and it is 0 when up to 75% of native species are at high risk (this is a level comparable to prehistoric mass extinctions).

    Current Score

    The current score indicates that the desired reference point has not been achieved and that there is the potential risk of losing a significant proportion of marine species diversity.

    82


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    Species That Inhabit The Ocean Are Interconnected
    Download Infographic


    How Is It Measured?

    Each goal is evaluated on the basis of four dimensions
    Present Status

    Present Status is a goal's current value (based on the most recent available data) compared to a reference point.

    Trend

    Trend is the average percent change in the present status for the most recent 5 years of data.

    Pressures

    Pressures are the sum of the ecological and social pressures that negatively affect scores for a goal.

    Resilience

    Resilience is the sum of the ecological factors and social initiatives (policies, laws, etc) that can positively affect scores for a goal by reducing or eliminating pressures.


    Status

    Status refers to the current value of a goal relative to its goal-specific reference point. The reference point is the best condition for a goal that can reasonably be achieved; it is a target to aim for when taking actions to improve ocean health.


    Resilience

    Resilience refers to the social, institutional, and ecological factors that positively affect the ability of a goal to deliver its benefits to people.



    References



  • Habitats

    Global Goal Score

    91

    Likely Future State

    +
    1
    %

    *The estimate of a goal’s likely near-term future status is a function of four dimensions: Status, Trend, Pressure, and Resilience.


    What Does This Score Mean?

    The reference point for the status of a country’s diversity-supporting habitats is that their areas or conditions equal or exceed what they were in the early 1980’s. Regions are not penalized for the absence of habitats that do not naturally occur there.

    Current Score

    The current score indicates that the six habitats assessed- mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, salt marshes, sea ice, and subtidal soft-bottom habitats- are still relatively healthy and intact on a global basis. However, the condition of the assessed habitats has declined over time. Continued decline in the future would undermine the score for overall Biodiversity and impact many other aspects of ocean health.

    This sub-goal score contrasts with numerous scientific studies and media reports. The most important reason is the reference point used in the Ocean Health Index. There is no question that the extent of mangrove forests, salt marshes and seagrass beds have declined considerably compared to historic levels; that sea ice is steadily declining (especially in the Arctic) and that a number of pressures now seriously challenge coral reefs. Since it is not possible to return the ocean to pre-human or pre-industrial age conditions, the reference point for extent or condition of most of these habitats has been set at ~1980, a target that is achievable. Changes that have occurred since then are significant, but not as dramatic as when compared to conditions hundreds of years ago.

    91


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    90


    Marine Species Depend Upon Key Habitats to Survive
    Download Infographic


    How Is It Measured?

    Each goal is evaluated on the basis of four dimensions
    Present Status

    Present Status is a goal's current value (based on the most recent available data) compared to a reference point.

    Trend

    Trend is the average percent change in the present status for the most recent 5 years of data.

    Pressures

    Pressures are the sum of the ecological and social pressures that negatively affect scores for a goal.

    Resilience

    Resilience is the sum of the ecological factors and social initiatives (policies, laws, etc) that can positively affect scores for a goal by reducing or eliminating pressures.


    Status

    Status refers to the current value of a goal relative to its goal-specific reference point. The reference point is the best condition for a goal that can reasonably be achieved; it is a target to aim for when taking actions to improve ocean health.


    Resilience

    Resilience refers to the social, institutional, and ecological factors that positively affect the ability of a goal to deliver its benefits to people.



    References






PHOTO(S): Beau Wrigley
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