Coastal Livelihoods
& Economies

Sustaining Jobs and Thriving Coastal Economies

People rely on the ocean to provide livelihoods (i.e. jobs with steady wages) and stable economies for coastal communities worldwide. The jobs and revenue produced from marine-related industries directly benefit those who are employed, but also have substantial indirect value for community identity, tax revenue, and other related economic and social impacts of a stable coastal economy.

Global Goal Score

82

Likely Future State

+
2
%

Ocean Region Rankings


*The estimate of a goal’s likely near-term future status is a function
of four dimensions: Status, Trend, Pressure, and Resilience.


Sub-Goals

Livelihoods and Economies is divided into two sub-goals: Livelihoods, and Economies. Each is measured separately because the number and quality of jobs and the amount of revenue produced are both of considerable interest to stakeholders and governments, and can have different patterns in some cases.


Select a sub goal
to learn more
  • Livelihoods

    Why Are Livelihoods Important?

    The Livelihoods sub-goal addresses how well the identity and livelihoods provided by marine-related sectors are sustained. It is measured by the number of marine-related jobs relative to a country’s growth (or decline) in employment rates over the last five years.  

    In order to capture job quality, per capita wages for marine sectors are also measured relative to the national average of per-capita wages for all sectors. Jobs are summed across sectors because people may shift their occupation from one sector to another, but still remain involved in the marine-related economy overall.   

    The marine sectors evaluated for jobs and/or wages are: 1) commercial fishing 2) mariculture 3) tourism and recreation 4) shipping and transportation 5) whale watching 6) ports and harbors 7) ship and boat building 8) renewable energy production (wind and wave)


    Global Goal Score

    77

    Likely Future State

    -
    1
    %

    *The estimate of a goal’s likely near-term future status is a function of four dimensions: Status, Trend, Pressure, and Resilience.


    What Does This Score Mean?

    The Livelihoods sub-goal is a combination of jobs and wages.

    The jobs portion of the sub goal uses a no-net-loss reference point, which means that jobs must keep pace with national trends in employment. The reference point for wages is that the per capita marine wages in each country, after adjustment for purchasing power parity, are compared to wages in the country with the current best standing.

    A high score indicates that there has been minimal net loss in the number of marine jobs or level of marine wages in a country over the past five years compared to these reference points. A low score indicates that current performance has declined significantly when compared with performance five years prior.

    Current Score

    The current score indicates that jobs and wages have moderately declined in the last five years and there is potential for improvement.

    As it can take several years for data to be reported, analyzed, archived and made available, lag times are inherent in many of the results reported by the Ocean Health Index (OHI). For that reason, losses in jobs and wages associated with the 2008 recession could be greater than this result suggests.

    77


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    Marine-Related Employment is Shifting Worldwide
    Download Infographic


    How Is It Measured?

    Each goal is evaluated on the basis of four dimensions
    Present Status

    Present Status is a goal's current value (based on the most recent available data) compared to a reference point.

    Trend

    Trend is the average percent change in the present status for the most recent 5 years of data.

    Pressures

    Pressures are the sum of the ecological and social pressures that negatively affect scores for a goal.

    Resilience

    Resilience is the sum of the ecological factors and social initiatives (policies, laws, etc) that can positively affect scores for a goal by reducing or eliminating pressures.


    Status

    Status refers to the current value of a goal relative to its goal-specific reference point. The reference point is the best condition for a goal that can reasonably be achieved; it is a target to aim for when taking actions to improve ocean health.


    Resilience

    Resilience refers to the social, institutional, and ecological factors that positively affect the ability of a goal to deliver its benefits to people.



    References



  • Economies

    Global Goal Score

    87

    Likely Future State

    +
    3
    %

    *The estimate of a goal’s likely near-term future status is a function of four dimensions: Status, Trend, Pressure, and Resilience.


    What Does This Score Mean?

    The reference point for Economies is that a country’s marine-related revenue must have no net loss and must keep pace with growth in GDP (or sustain losses no greater than the national decline in GDP).

    Since it can be subjective to establish the optimal level of revenue for a given country to aspire to, the reference point chosen was the revenue five years prior to the current year. The goal gets a perfect score when coastal economies had no greater loss or increased faster than the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the last five years. A score becomes lower as relative loss in revenue increases.

    Current Score

    The current score indicates that revenue from the marine related sectors measured declined faster than other economic sectors.

    The score is low compared to the Livelihoods sub-goal, suggesting that revenues declined much more than jobs and wages did. This may be due to the fact that global data on revenue are lacking for some marine-related sectors, including tourism, offshore wind and wave energy, coastal development, scientific research, etc.

    If the missing sectors increased faster than non marine-related economies, then this score is lower than it should be.

    87


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    Marine-Related Revenues and the World Economy
    Download Infographic


    How Is It Measured?

    Each goal is evaluated on the basis of four dimensions
    Present Status

    Present Status is a goal's current value (based on the most recent available data) compared to a reference point.

    Trend

    Trend is the average percent change in the present status for the most recent 5 years of data.

    Pressures

    Pressures are the sum of the ecological and social pressures that negatively affect scores for a goal.

    Resilience

    Resilience is the sum of the ecological factors and social initiatives (policies, laws, etc) that can positively affect scores for a goal by reducing or eliminating pressures.


    Status

    Status refers to the current value of a goal relative to its goal-specific reference point. The reference point is the best condition for a goal that can reasonably be achieved; it is a target to aim for when taking actions to improve ocean health.


    Resilience

    Resilience refers to the social, institutional, and ecological factors that positively affect the ability of a goal to deliver its benefits to people.



    References






PHOTO(S): Gerick Bergsma/Marine Photobank
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