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Pressures are factors that harm the ocean's ability to deliver benefits and lower the status scores for Ocean Health Index goals. Resilience is the system's ability to resist, rebound or recover from Pressures. 

Two general categories of Pressures and Resilience are recognized.  ‘Ecological pressure’ includes pollution, habitat destruction, alien species, fisheries bycatch and physical factors such as global warming, ocean acidification, ultraviolet light and sea level rise. ‘Social pressure’ expresses a society's likely inability to take the necessary actions needed to counteract pressures owing to poor governance, uncompetitive economic system or similar factors.  Conversely, ‘ecological resilience’ is the intrinsic ability of species, habitats or ecosystems to respond to pressures as well as actions that societies have taken (e.g. regulations, treaties etc.) to protect species, habitats and ecosystems. ‘Social resilience’ indicates the likelihood that a society's infrastructure (governance, economic competitiveness or others) enables it to take actions that reduce pressures.

How was it measured?

Three indicators were used to measure Social Pressure and Social Resilience.  Those indicators were: the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI), the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) and Sector Diversity and Evenness.  WGI is a measure of the quality and effectiveness of a region's governance. GCI measures social factors that contribute to a society's ability to compete economically. Sector evenness measures the breadth and evenness of a region's marine sector employment and economy.  WGI is used for all goals. GCI and Sector Evenness are added for the Livelihoods & Economies goal. In each case, raw scores for the component are rescaled to a range from 0 to 1 for use in the Ocean Health Index.  For calculating the score for each goal, the rescaled WGI score or the average of the rescaled WGI, GCI and/or Sector Evenness score is used as the score for Social Resilience and (1- Social Resilience score) is used as the Social Pressure score.   

Further details on WGI, GCI and Sector Evenness are provided on the Web pages for those components and in the Supplementary Information to Halpern et al. (2012).

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