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Why Are Livelihoods Important?

The Livelihoods sub-goal measures the number of marine-related jobs relative to a country’s growth (or decline) in employment rates over the last five years; and the quality of those jobs as a function of wages paid. 

The number of jobs is summed across all marine sectors because people may shift their occupation from one sector to another, but still remain involved in the marine-related economy overall. 

Job quality is captured by measuring per capita annual wages for each marine sector relative to the highest value observed across all countries. Wages are compared in constant-year USD corrected for purchasing power parity (ppp) to control for differences in the purchasing power of a dollar across countries with respect to a range of common goods. 

The marine sectors evaluated for jobs and/or wages are: 1) commercial fishing 2) mariculture 3) tourism and recreation 4) shipping and transportation 5) whale watching 6) ports and harbors 7) ship and boat building 8) renewable energy production (wind and wave).

Goal Score

77 The goal score for Sub-Goal: Livelihoods is 77 out of 100. The global average score is 70 out of 100.

Likely Future State


It is estimated that in the near future the score for Sub-Goal: Livelihoods will decline roughly --1%.
global score

What Does This Score Mean?

The Livelihoods sub-goal is a combination of jobs and wages.

The jobs portion of the sub goal uses a no-net-loss reference point, which means that jobs must keep pace with national trends in employment. The reference point for wages is that the per capita marine wages in each country, after adjustment for purchasing power parity, are compared to wages in the country with the current best standing.

A high score indicates that there has been minimal net loss in the number of marine jobs in a country compared to the average over the past five years; and that ppp-corrected wages are close to those in the highest ranked country. A low score indicates that current performance has declined significantly when compared with performance five years prior.

Current Score
The current score indicates that jobs and wages have declined substantially compared to their reference points leaving much room for improvement.

As it can take several years for data to be reported, analyzed, archived and made available, lag times are inherent in many of the results reported here. For that reason, losses in jobs and wages associated with the 2008 recession could be greater than this result suggests.

more information


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Review of the state of the world marine fishery resources. (Fisheries and Aquaculture, Policy and Economics Division FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department: Rome, Italy, 2011).

NOAA Ocean Economy