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The 2019 Ocean Health Index scores are available for the same 220 Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) that were measured in 2012-2018. 

The 2019 Ocean Health Index global score for the EEZs is 71 out of 100. Below are a few of the key findings. 

Petal diagram of the 2019 Ocean Health Index scores. 

Source: NCEAS, UC Santa Barbara, 2019 

The 2019 Global Ocean Health Index

The 2019 study assessed the marine waters under national jurisdiction, the coastlines, and oceans (out to 200 nautical miles), of 220 coastal countries and territories. These regions total 40% of the ocean and provide most benefits to people, but also incur the most pressures from human activities

The overall score, 71, is is a slight improvement from 2018.  Rapid change in year-to-year global level scores is not expected, since change in most conditions usually cannot take place that quickly.

The overall score sends a message that the ocean isn’t ‘dying’ as many people may think. However, the score remains far from 100, indicating that marine life would fare better and we would gain more benefits if we used the ocean in more sustainable ways.

Trends in goal scores across the eight years of assessments vary among regions, however, at the global scale we observed an increase in Artisanal Opportunities, Carbon Storage, Clean Water, Food Provision and Tourism & Recreation. 

Overall, scores declined for Biodiversity, Coastal Protection, Natural Products, and the Species sub-goal. Declines in scores for Coastal Protection were primarily driven by the substantial loss of coastal sea ice in sub-Arctic coastlines.


Goal scores from lowest to highest:

Natural Products (51);

Food Provision (52) - subgoals: Fisheries (55) and Mariculture (6);

Tourism & Recreation (52);

Sense of Place (64) - sub-goals: Iconic Species (66) and Lasting Special Places (62);

Clean Waters (70);

Artisanal Fishing Opportunities (77);

Carbon Storage (79);

Livelihoods & Economies (82) - sub-goals: Livelihoods (77) and Economies (88);

Coastal Protection (86);

Biodiversity (88) - sub-goals: Species (84) and Habitats (91).

Regional scores ranged from (44) to (95).

In total, 24 regions scored 80 or above, many of which are island nations. 

Regions with highest average scores:

Heard and McDonald Islands (95)

Howland Island and Baker Island (93)

Kerguelen Islands

Germany (86) was the only regions with a population exceeding one million to score 80 or above.  

In total, ten regions scored 50 or below, with seven of these in Africa, one in Central America, and two in the Middle East. 

Regions with lowest average scores:


Sierra Leone (46)

Ivory Coast (47)

Syria (47)

Democratic Republic of the Congo (48)

As observed in previous years, regions with stable and effective governance tended to score much higher than regions where corruption, dictatorship, civil strife, war and poverty have been chronic. This underscores that improving ocean health will require efforts from all sectors to promote peace, justice, gender equality, socially-responsible business and other aspects of civil health, because progress in those areas makes it much easier for communities and nations to improve the environmental and economic conditions needed to boost ocean health.

Geographic distribution of scores for the 2019 Ocean Health Index

Source: NCEAS, UC Santa Barbara, 2019

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